Christianity is believed to have come to Kerala in the first century AD when the Apostle Thomas, like other disciples, ventured near and far to spread the gospel in accordance with Christ’s command. There has been some speculation that the reason why St Thomas came to Kerala had less to do with converting the “locals” and was more to do with trying to convert the sizable Jewish population who lived in Kerala especially in Cochin. These Jews assimilated into the community though they continued to maintain their own faith and customs. They were welcomed and, unlike in many other countries, have never been the victims of persecution while living in India – a testament to the receptiveness of the Hindus who lived in Kerala and were willing to receive people of a different faith. Today there is still a centuries old synagogue in Cochin and a handful of Jewish families but most emigrated to Israel over the years because of better economic opportunities.

How successful St Thomas was in converting the Jews is not known but it is generally believed that he converted several prominent Brahmin families and these conversions together with others is the genesis of the Syrian Christians who live in Kerala and elsewhere around the world.

I write about this because there was a communication on a Yahoo group to which I belong consisting of mainly Asians who lived or live in East Africa. Apparently there is a debate going on in the UK about outlawing caste discrimination in Britain – yes, the old-fashioned discrimination against Dalits that is associated with India. There is opposition among some Hindu groups in Britain, to this legislation – in effect arguing that caste discrimination in the UK should not be addressed! This entire issue of seeking to achieve a “protected” status for casteism in the UK by certain Hindu groups is a whole different discussion.

But, in this context another member of the Yahoo group cited an email he received from someone known to me and several other family members which essentially said that such casteism is not just confined to Hindus and that even Christians in Kerala are guilty of the same thing.

A part of his email stated:

“But do you know Hindus are not the only ones to be blamed for this accursed practice. Even the so called upper class Christians in Kerala are guilty of this though they had given up Hinduism centuries ago claiming to have been converted by the Apostle St. Thomas!”

He went on to cite a Goan he knew from many years ago when he was a student in England who apparently asked him what caste he was. He (the Goan) claimed he was of the Brahmin caste. He goes on to say: “Wow! I was confused. My parents had never told me what caste we belonged to, not that it would have interested me in the least.”

Now, I am a Syrian Christian by birth but because of my upbringing in Mombasa, Kenya where there were only a handful of other Syrian Christian families, my involvement in the Syrian Christian faith has been minimal. However, I felt that a response was warranted to address the statements made in that email. Here is the thrust of my response:

“The email that you forwarded from S—- misstates the way that “upper class Christians”, as he puts it, classify themselves. Some of what he says does have some substance.

“I presume that by “upper class Christians” he is referring to Syrian Christians – being the descendants of those who were supposedly converted by the Apostle Thomas . In all my years, I have NEVER ONCE heard a Kerala Christian – Syrian or otherwise – referring to him/herself as belonging to so and so caste – as S—– pointed out, it would be incongruous to do so. What does happen is that the older generation talks about their antecedents and how they are descended from Brahmins, etc – incidentally such claims are not provable and are based on anecdotal information at best. Many of these claims of Brahmin antecedents are predicated on the belief that St Thomas converted several prominent Brahmin families in the first century. Some of these families are named in these anecdotes and today, if you check out the family websites of some Syrian Christian families, they claim to have descended from these converted Brahmin families. In fact, references to having come from an “ancient (Syrian Christian) family” are found so often that one wonders if there are any families left that are not ancient:)

“What Syrian Christian families frequently do is to refer to their antecedents in the context of their family names. This is pretty much the norm in conversations among them – especially the older generation – where one of the first questions asked is where one is from within Kerala and then a query as to one’s family name. The younger generation who were brought up elsewhere in India or abroad, are quite oblivious of this sort of information and often view it as being rather superfluous and inconsequential.

“My father used to say that the biggest change that had taken place in the social structure in Kerala during his years in Kenya was the diminished importance of family antecedents among Syrian Christians. It has been replaced with affluence – ie how well off is the family! He used to say it with a mixture of regret and pride – those who knew him can relate to his attitude. He was affected to his detriment by its diminished influence but he was intellectually detached enough to recognize that it meant true social progress and he used to say that it was a good thing that a form of meritocracy had taken the place of family antecedents.

“Between the high literacy rate in Kerala, the influence of the various communist governments in the state and the wholesale migration to the Gulf, there has been a non-violent social revolution which has resulted in a very limited, so called, “working class” since migrants to the Gulf send money which improves the lot of their families in Kerala enabling them not to have to do menial work. This has resulted in a flood of workers coming into Kerala from other states – especially Bihar and Tamil Nadu – to fill the vacuum left by the lack of workers in construction and other fields. In fact, the security and other hired help at the building where our flat is located in Cochin is entirely staffed by Nepalese (Gurkhas)!

“Where I do agree with S—- is that there is a pecking order here in terms of how Christians view other Christians – yes, very unchristian but it is a reality. Syrian Christians – perhaps because of their assertion and belief that they were converted by St Thomas – view themselves as a cut above other Kerala Christians. They tend to view other Kerala Christians who were either converted by the Portuguese or the missionaries with diffidence bordering on mild unspoken derision – again, quite contrary to Christian teachings. In fact, even among Syrian Christians, there is a certain amount of denominational rivalry which occasionally gets quite antagonistic. However, when it comes to marriage, denomination invariably ceases to be a factor if an eligible young man or woman appears on the scene! So, pragmatism rules when it comes to self-interest!!

“Even the example cited by S—– about the Goan who asked him about his caste, I suspect was asking him about his family’s background prior to conversion. I seem to recall the same type of exchanges on this forum by Goan Christians talking about their antecedents prior to conversion.

“Incidentally, we as a family attended an Anglican church when we were in Mombasa – the Mombasa Cathedral – because there was no Syrian Christian church in Mombasa. As a result, I personally have very little affinity with the Syrian Christian service which is long and quite formal. However those who do attend Syrian Christian churches in the DC area and in the US are quite dedicated to the welfare of the churches they attend and eager that their children imbibe some of those religious traditions. I attend a Syrian Christian service once in a while when there is a special ceremony – a baptism, memorial service, etc. In fact, when my daughter got married to an American, the service was a blend of the American church that she and her husband attend and the Syrian Christian marriage service – so there were two priests administering the rites of marriage based on the two traditions.

“One can justifiably criticize Syrian Christians about some other things but talking about which caste they belong to is not one of them!”

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152 Responses to “Christianity and caste”

  1. Appappan says:

    And this sense of cleanliness is still observed (not by youngsters though). The patriarchal Decrees are
    1. Poyi kulichittu vada. Avanu pacha vellam kodukkaruthu (when you come late home and attempt to get some dinner before bath)
    2. Aaa kaalangu kazhukiyechu ….(You are required to wash your legs before entering the house, no matter how clean your legs are)


  2. Appappan says:

    Undechu kulikkunnavane kandal kulikkanam. Ethra prayamaayalum aa swabhavam maattaruthu. Neeyokke naale engane jeevikkum…

  3. Appappan says:

    “I just mentioned Hindu names as an example, there are many other cultural symbols among Syrians such as use of Nilavilakku, Thali, Manthrakodi, Margamkali (which originated from Mangalam Kali of Pulayas), etc. ”

    Good spot Dr.Avarna,

    1. Margamkali – In his book, ‘Kerala Sahitya Charitram’, poet-historian Ulloor Parameswara Iyer compares the movements in Margamkali to those in Sanghakkali, practised by Brahmins

    2. you claims ‘Nilavilakku’ is a hindu tradition. But I cant see this being used any where else in Hindustan. So, I would suggest it being a Syrian Christian tradition which the Kerala Hindus adopted later.

    3. Taali – From Barbosa I can see that only the Namboothiris and Mappilas (Nasrani, Jootha & Jonakan) had the tribal/oppressive practice of marriage in the past. Since the later two doesnt use a Taali, It is an adoption from the former – Taali is a brahminical custom

    4. Manthrakodi – Not aware of this practice among the Pulaya/Paraiyar communities, but know about similar practices among the Brahmin and the Sudras (they call it pudava). But I doubt the pudava is an imitation of the Mantrakodi. Reason – I believe this is a unique custom of Malabar.

  4. Appappan says:

    “They ridicule and pooh-pooh these insane claims, ignoring historical and demographic evidences”

  5. Yakob says:

    There’s a book on Pothan Joseph written by TJS George (another illustrious Syrian Christian). I wonder if that book would have his famous “dog apology”. Apart from his journalistic talents, I like the way he punched the viceroy’s chief advisor.

  6. Avarna Madam,
    Your comments —“””Also I don’t think “Kshatriya Kshema Sabha” will give membership to any Christians. KKS is not a caste organization like SNDP or NSS. It is a family-based association of Royal families in Kerala. It has only a membership of around 25,000. No rajputs are given membership to KKS. You and your father will be given membership if you belong to any Royal families. But in no way if you are Christians””””
    -Where did I say that I am a life long member of the KKS I said my paternal side has a membership as they are from a Royal Family(Rajput) my father inclusive (and later on after turning a Christian ,he is the member of the Marthoma Syrian church I added ,my father is not an active member as now he is a Christian after baptism when he married my mother(it’s a fact of common sense that a man cannot be a member of two different caste/religion based organizations….. and also it seems that you are ignorant and rather than precisely reading my previous posts just twisted -turned and made a f#$%king hell out of it just to support your complex’d minds degraded deranged egos, I can sense your impatience and eagerness to intensely attack me and my family by your low levels of ignoramus nature to any posts that does not support your suite…Grow Aparna Grow..Go Aparna Go …Bow aparna Bow …no not in opposite direction ..k ..i have a Neapolitan Mastiff. Be aware.
    -And you said it is a family based association???As far as a man is social animal and is born to a specific caste and that he is a member of a family then yes your claim is considerable.But let me teach you one thing that anyone born as an Arya Kshatriya,Samantha Kshatriya,Samantha ….speaking Malayalam as their mother tongue ,who is directly a ruler or anyone related to the above described caste is eligible into this Sabha….”Super shudras” or false Kshatriyas excluded.
    -It has only a membership of around 25,000???where did you get this data from ???It seems day before yesterday night you took population census personally on urgent basis.:-D
    -You said “you and your father will be given membership only if you belong to a royal family”
    Where did I say that I do not belong to a Royal Family????.A Ruling Rajput of yesteryears will definitely not be a “soldier” but a “ruler” and his family will be a Royal one me madam.. by looking at your posts I think you have some acute chronic brain disease and that you are just an addlebrained nincompoop I ever saw.
    -And lastly,Why did you associate “my” membership with KKS …I never quoted ….I am not a member of KKS,I said about my fathers membership previously is that clear Avarna!!!And I do not need KKS to prove technically that I am a Rajput …According to your statements it is clear about how your ego pricks you ..It is similar to questioning a namboodiri whether if only he has a membership in Yogakshema Sabha only then he shall be a born namboothiri R8??? …I am following a Nasrani Marthomite Tradition now…And I do not want KKS ,only when I visit my grandfather in Kerala I remember my past of being someone from a royal clan.
    -Why I said about my past and personal things was to give you a living example of recent conversion from high caste Hindus to Christianity .
    Hoping that you will have a sound sleep today. Madam aka Sir.

  7. Yeshurathnam and all fake i.d users,

    There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is neither male nor female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus.
    Christianity. Bible, Galatians 3.28

    I look upon all creatures equally; none are less dear to me and none more dear.
    Hinduism. Bhagavad Gita 9.29

    Four are the castes–brahmin, khatri, sudra, and vaishya;
    Four the stages of life–
    Out of these, whoever on the Lord meditates, is superior.
    Sikhism. Adi Granth, Gaund, M.4, p. 861

    By deeds, not by birth, is one a brahmin. By deeds one is a ksatriya, by deeds is one a vaishya, and by deeds is one a shudra.
    Jainism. Uttaradhyayana Sutra 25.3

    Confucius said, “By nature men are pretty much alike; it is learning and practice that set them apart.”
    Confucianism. Analects 17.2

    O mankind! We created you from a single pair of a male and a female and made you into nations and tribes, that you might know each other [not that you might despise each other]. Verily the most honored among you in the sight of God is he who is the most righteous.
    Islam. Qur’an 49.13

    Have a good & a sound sleep Sir.

  8. TJ says:

    Yakob, there is a fascinating anecdote about Pothan Joseph and K.P.S. Menon arriving uninvited to tea at the residence of the English principal of CMS College in Kottayam. They were both accompanying their older brothers – George Joseph and Gopala Menon respectively – who were invited!

    You can read about it here:

  9. Appappan says:

    According to Dr. KP “Census Report of 1898 made Syrian Christians casteless. Taking advantage of the new status during the course of 3 centuries, a well orchestrated campaign was launched to claim Nambudiri caste and Jewish race.(For further details refer Sadasivan, S.N., A Social History of India, New Delhi, A.P.H.Publishing House, , 2000)”

    Niranam Grandhavari.
    04.03 Pakalomattathu Kudumbam
    Marthoma sleeha malayalathil vannu margam aruvichappol pattamanaparaurenna kottakkayal gramathil mukhyapetta illakkar Chankarapuriyennum Pakalonmattam ennum Palliyennum Kaliyakum Karayennum. Ivaru naalu tharavaattukaru ee vedam anusarichu. Marthoma Sleeha Chankarapuriyilum Pakalonmattathilum pattavum Koduthu.

    This was written in 1815.

    “They ridicule and pooh-pooh these insane claims, , ignoring historical and demographic evidences”

  10. Appappan says:

    And see what F.WARDE says in his ‘Account of the St Thome Christians on the Coast of Malabar’

    Asiatic Researches volume 10

    There is also still a common amongst them that they descend at least that are from Syrian origin from four principal samilies who had successively settled on coast …..

    …. They made at first some proselytes amongst the Bramins and Nairs and were on that account much respected by the native princes so that even at present they consider themselves equal in rank to of the above two casts

    “They ridicule and pooh-pooh these insane claims, , ignoring historical and demographic evidences”

  11. Appappan says:

    “Thaalikkettu (tying the wedding locket): is done by father. Smruthi suggests two types of thaalikkettu. Either the bride’s father or alternatively, the bridegroom, may do it. Namboothiris opted for the former” –

    But among Nasranis Taali is tied by the Groom. So Nasranis are fake Namboothiris. ?

    “They ridicule and pooh-pooh these insane claims, , ignoring historical and demographic evidences”

  12. Agent J says:

    “You’re no longer part of the System. You’re above the System. Over it. Beyond it. We are the Men in Jesus.”

  13. After a long time I came across this blog and found peace …my goodness!!!!yes this is the way it should be ,Historians like Mr.Yeshurathnam did came to know that history doesnt have to be sectarian neither being a critic in all ways is fruitfull..he will be the best researcher atleast now without any inclination ….appapan (an unknown person counter attacked with reality …I too believe that leaving aside all tensions and issues i am a human being…and am sorry if by any means insult anyone by words and so on….let’s not differentiate but be one believing in the holy ghost.Amen.God bless you all.

  14. Yakob says:

    Chill, watch Yohan at their tharavadu at Mankotta Island……

  15. St.Thomas says:

    There at least five Royal Nasrani butchers/meat traders known to me in and around my village. Also pork is a delicious item in the their menu. What type of blood is it? Namboothiris or Jews. In my opinion Syrian Christians are the decendants of Chandalas.

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  19. Neende amma says:

    That was a long and crazy debate. Yeshurathan is still correct though

  20. Jordan says:

    I’m still reading this debate and I quite enjoy it. Hey A.Yeshuratnam u seem very knowledgeable can I have your email please I want to ask you a few questions on Kerala’s history

  21. Vil says:


    1.Kerala was not created by Parashurama. Kerala had been homeland of Dravidians from time immemorial. Onam festival celebrated for the past 3800 years after Dravidian king Mahabali was killed by Upendra brother of Aryan king Indra.
    2.Kerala was ruled by Tamil Villavar kings from time immemorial. Villavar were supported by Villavar, Malayar and Vanavar clans. Ancient Keralites used Tamil and Pali languages.
    3. Christianity, St.Thomas or Nambuthiris were not known to Sangam era Tamils.
    4. Sangam age Tamils of Kerala were Jains but Buddhism and Dravidian religeon were also practiced.
    5. Sangam age Brahmins were called Anthanar, Parpanar and Vediar who were often drawn from Dravidian communities.
    6.Tulu-Nepali invaders such as Nairs, Nambuthiris and Samantha Kshatria appeared in Kerala after Tulu Alupa dynasty prince Banapperumal with the help of Arabs occupied Malabar in 1120 AD.
    7.Christianity was not a known religeon to Later Chera Villavar dynasty kings who ruled from Kodungaloor between 800 AD to 1102 AD and Cherai Villavar dynasty which ruled from Kollam between 1102 AD to 1333 AD.
    8.The matrilineal Tulu-Nepali kings became rulers of Kerala after the Turkish invasion of Malik Kafur in 1311 AD. With this Nepali clans from Ahichatra such as Nairs and Nambuthiris dominated Kerala after 1333 AD.
    9.Until 1339 AD only only few hundred foreign blooded Persian Nestorians called Malabar Suriyani Nasranis existed. Nestorians did not believe Jesus was God and called him a humanbeing. Nestorians refused to accept Mary as “Mother of God” who called her “Mother of Jesus”. Nestorian Syrian christians worshipped “Eli” alias “Alaha” as God.
    10.The Nestorian Syrian Mapillai Christians were headed by Kurdiah Nestorian Bishops send from Mosul in Iraq.
    11. At 1339 AD Villarvettom who ruled from Chendamangalam and his subjects embraced Nestorian Christianity increasing Christian population to 30000.
    12.After 1498 AD Portuguese intermixed with Villarvettom Tamils Nestorian Christians to create a 200,000 numbered Portuguese Mestizo community who were Roman Catholics. Only after 1498 AD Kerala Christians accepted Jesus as God and Mary as “Mother of God”.
    13. Pope encouraged the use of Latin Catholic Liturgy translated into Syriac in the Roman Catholic churches. The Vernacular language of Villarvettom Tamils Malayalam-Tamil was not allowed in the churches.
    14. Some of the Portuguese Mestizo Syrian Roman Catholic Tamil community joined the Turkish Western Syriac Jacobite-Orthodox sect and their priests started wearing costume Jacobite priests of Turkey.
    15. Most of the Portuguese Mestizo Roman Catholic community was under Kodungaloor Latin Diocese between 1661 AD to 1838 AD where both Latin rite priests and Syriac rite priests existed. Syriac rite priests also used Latin liturgy translated to Syriac. Syriac language was never understood by Villarvettom Portuguese Mestizo Syrian Tamils.
    16. Until 1830 AD used Dravidian tongue Malayalam-Tamil alias Malayanma. But after 1830 AD the Syrian Christians abandoned their ancestral language and adopted “Nepali Malayalam” written with Tulu script which had been used by only Nairs and Nambuthiris.
    17. Only after British left in 1956 AD a Syrian Christian Bishop who had been educated at Kandy Latin Catholic seminary in Srilanka started the use of Malayalam Liturgy in Roman Catholic churches.

  22. Vil says:


    The Syrian Christians of Kerala of Kerala originated from ancient Nambuthiri Christians converted by St.Thomas in 52 AD. St.Thomas preferred Nambuthiris because they were Savarnas who were the most respected among Keralites. Another reason was that as nobody was allowed to go near Nambuthiris the Christianity will be safe with Nambuthiri Christians.

    As Nairs traditionally served Nambuthiris the Nairs obeyed Christian Nambuthiris also. So that the Christian Nambuthiris were also protected by Nairs.

    Christian Nambuthiris also would have practised Sambandam with Shudra women.


    St.Thomas baptized several Nambuthiri families such as Pakalomattom, Sankarapuri, Thayyil, Payyappilly, Kalli, Kaliyankal, and Pattamukku as Christians.

    The first Bishop of Kodungaloor Syro-Malabar diocese Palliveetil Chandy and the founder of Orthodox-Jacobite church Marthoma church were from Pakalomattom Nambuthiri families.


    Kerala was part of the the ancient Thamilakam. Though Tamil was commonly used in that period the Savarnas of Kerala preferred to talk in Malayalam or Sanskrit. As St.Thomas had mastered Sanskrit most of the conversations was in Sanskrit. Only Nambuthiris Nairs, Samantha Kshatrias and Christian Nambuthiris were considered as Savarnas in ancient Kerala.


    According to the legends Lord Parashurama threw his axe from Gokarna in Karnataka to Kanyakumari. After this the coastal areas rose from the sea and thus coastal Karnataka were created.

    Kerala was thus given to sixty four families of Nambuthiris who became the original owners of Kerala. St.Thomas might have converted atleast half of Nambuthiri population of Kerala. Thus the Nambuthiri Christians also descended from the Nambuthiris who received Kerala direct from Parashurama.
    Thus both Parasurama and St.Thomas were mentors of Christian Nambuthiri community of Kerala.


    Nairs originally did not belong to Kerala but they were brought by Nambuthiris as servants and cultivators. Though considered as Shudras Nairs were also considered as Savarnas and held a position quite higher than indigenous Dravidians.


    Ancient mother tongue of Keralites also might have been Sanskrit though many talked Malayalam also. Nambuthiri Christians of Kerala would have wanted Sanskrit as their liturgical language. Some Nambuthiri Christians however would have preferred Malayalam instead.

    St.Thomas had to preach in Sanskrit as the Nambuthiris preferred Sanskrit to Tamil.

    But St.Thomas might have preferred Syriac language which was the liturgical language of Church of East of Persia and Church of Babylon founded by himself. It was because St.Thomas Christians of India should be able to converse with their fellow Christians of Persia and Syria. Hebrew was also might have been used extensively by the ancient Nambuthiri Christians of Kerala.

  23. Vil says:


    St.Thomas established Seven Churches in Kerala and a half church at Kanyakumari. It was because the Kanyakumari fellows always talked half Malayalam.

    St.Thomas established Churches are at Kodungallur,  Palayoor, Kottakkavu near Paravur, Kokkamangalam, Niranam, Nilackal alias Chayal,  Kollam, and Thiruvithamcode Arappoli church.

    Kodungaloor was the medieval Chera capital. Musiris near Kodungaloor was a important port of Chera dynasty.

    Palayoor in Thrissur was one of the seven Churches established by St Thomas.

    Kottakkavu was another place where St.Thomas built another church. Kottakkavu was located near North Paravur near Vembanad Kayal.

    Kokkamangalam was a place on the western bank of Vembanad Kayal. Kokkamangalam was also known as Kokkothamangalam. At Kokkamangalam St.Thomas established another full Church.

    At Niranam another church was established by St.Thomas. Nelkinda, the ancient Pandiyan capital existed near Niranam.

    At Nilackal near Sabarimala at the Pathanamthittta district another Church was established by St Thomas.

    The seventh full church was established by St.Thomas at Kollam.

    At Arappoli near Thiruvithancode at the Kanyakumari district St.Thomas established a half church.

    St.Thomas though a fisherman by birth was a trained architect who had built palaces for Indo-Parthian king Gondophares who ruled from his capital at Taxla.

    St.Thomas was the founder of Savarna Christianity in Kerala. Savarna Christians of Kerala were mostly Nambuthiris.


    St.Thomas had never met any Tamils or any Dravidians in Kerala. This is because the Dravidian Tamils who were considered as Shudras and Avarnas avoided coming near St.Thomas.

  24. Vil says:


    Account of Franciscan Friar Giovanni de’ Marignolli of Forence who visited Chennai and in 1347 AD.

    The third province of India is called Maabar, and the church of St.Thomas which he built with his own hands is there, besides another which he built by the agency of workmen. These he paid with certain very great stones which I have seen there, and with a log cut down on Adam’s Mountin Seyllan, which he caused to be sawn up, and from its sawdust other trees were sown. Now that log, huge as it was, was cut down by two slaves of his and drawn to these aside by the saint’s own girdle. When the log reached the sea he said to it, “Go now and tarry for us in the haven of the city of Mirapolis (Mylapore).

    1 .”It arrived there accordingly, where upon the king of that place with his whole army endeavoured to draw it ashore, but ten thousand men were not able to make it stir.

    Then St.Thomas the Apostle himself came on the ground, riding on an ass, wearing a shirt, a stole, and a mantle of peacock’s feathers, and attended by those two slaves and by two great lions, just as he is painted, and called out

    “Touch not the log, for it is mine! “”How,” quoth the king,

    “dost thou make it out to be thine?

    “So the Apostle loosing the cord where with he was girt, ordered his slaves to tie it to the log and draw it ashore. And this being accomplished with the greatest ease, the king was converted, and bestowed upon the saint as much land as he could ride round upon his ass. So during the day-time he used to goon building his churches in the city, but at night he retired to a distance of three Italian miles, where there were numberless peacocks.

    2…and thus being shot in the side with an arrow such as is called frictia, (so that his wound was like that in the side of Christ into which he had thrust his hand), he lay there before his oratory from the hour of complines, continuing throughout the night to preach, whilst all his blessed blood was welling from his side; and in the morning he gave up his soul to God. The priests gathered up the earth with which his blood had mingled, and buried it with him. By means of this I experienced a distinct miracle twice over in my own person,which I shall relate elsewhere

    1 . Standing miracles are, however, to be seen there, in respect both of the opening of the sea, and of the peacocks

    2 . Moreover whatever quantity of that earth be removed from the grave oneday, just as much is replaced spontaneously against the next. And when this earth is taken in a potion it cures diseases, and in this manner open miracles are wrought both among Christians and among Tartars and Pagans

    3 .That king also gave St.Thomas a perpetual grant of the public steelyard for pepper and all aromatic spices,and no one dares take this privilege from the Christiansbut at the peril of death

    4. I spent fourdays there; there is an excellent pearl fishery at the place.

  25. Vil says:


    Marignolli says that the Church built by St.Thomas with his own hands was there at Maabar. St.Thomas had built another Church at Mabar with the help of workmen. For the workmen he paid with great precious stones. Maabar is the Arabic name for Pandyan kingdom and Tamilnadu in general.


    St.Thomas caused a log cut down at Adam’s Mountain(peak) Seyllan(Srilanka) and got it to be sawn up. From its sawdust were sown to germinate other trees.

    This big log which was cut down by two slaves of St.Thomas.The log was tied with the girdle(belt) of St.Thomas and was drawn to seashore by his two slaves.

    When the log of wood reached the Seashore St.Thomas told it to go and wait for them in the haven(harbour) of the city of Mirapolis(Mylapore).

    The log floated all the way through sea from Adams peak and reached Madras and was floating at the sea.

    Then the king of Madras with his whole army and endeavoured to draw the log ashore. But ten thousand men could not draw it to shore.


    Then St.Thomas the Apostle came to the place wearing a shirt, a stole(a long loose robe) and a mantle(a sleeveless cloak) of peacock feathers. He was accompanied by his two slaves and by two great lions. There was a painting in the church depicting him with a peacock feather cloak, riding an ass and accompanied by his two slaves and two lions.

    Nestorians usually are iconoclastic who avoided using idols or Pictures. But Marignolli says that he saw a pictue of St.Thomas.

    Then St.Thomas called out that the log was his and not to touch it. The king queried How was it his.

    The apostle loosened the cord he had tied around his waist and ordered his slaves to rie it to the log and draw it ashore.

    The slaves drew the log to the shore without much effort.

    The king was converted and bestowed upon the saint as much land as he could ride round upon his ass.

    During the day time St.Thomas built his churches in the City. But at night he retired to a place where there were numerous peacocks which was three Italian miles (1.852 km/Roman mile) away.

    Thus St.Thomas built two churches at St.Thomas Mount. He built many Churches in the Madras city during the day time.In the night time he rested at Mylapore where there used to be numerous Peacocks.

  26. Vil says:


    St.Thomas was shot with an arrow called Frictia on his side.By this his wound resembled the left flank wound of Jesus Christ into whist he had thrust his hand. He lay there after his complines(evening prayer) preaching throughout night while his blessed blood was welling by his side. In the morning St.Thomas gave up his soul to God. The priests gathered the earth sodden with his blood and buried it with him.

    Because of this John of Marignolli experienced a miracle twice over his own person.

    Miracles of opening of the sea and Peacocks were seen there.

    Whatever quantity of the earth removed from the grave oneday the same amount is replaced spontaneously next day. When this earth is taken as a potion it cures diseases. Because of this miraculous power the earth is taken by Christians and among Tartars (Muslims) and Pagans(Hindus).

    That king also gave St.Thomas a perpetual grant of the public steelyard for pepper and all aromatic spices,and no one dares take this privilege from the Christiansbut at the peril of death.

    Marignolli spent fourdays there. There was an excellent pearl fishery at the place.

    By pearl fishery Marignolli means Tuticorin but it is 600 km away.

    Other possibility is that St.Thomas tomb was at Kayalpattinam a seaport at pearl fishery coast. Peacocks are found there too.


    According to Acts of Thomas St.Thomas was executed at a hill called Calamina (Kala-Minar in Jaghatu)in the Ghazni province of Afghanistan by a Indo-Greek king Misdeus in 46 AD. Under the orders from King Misdeus four soldiers stabbed him with spears. After that St.Thomas’s body was interred in a Royal sepulchre.

    But after one year when Misdeus opened the tomb of St.Thomas he found no body. Misdeus was told that the disciples of St.Thomas stole his body and had taken it to Edessa. Unless by a remote chance that St.Thomas survived the injuries and was rescued by his disciples his second martyrdom at Chennai at 72 AD is not possible.

  27. Vil says:


    After the arrival of Portuguese St.Thomas is depicted in the western style holding a Crozier.

    The earlier Indian depiction of St.Thomas wearing a Shirt, Stole and a mantle made of Peacock feather and also riding an ass, accompanied by two Slaves and two Lions and such depiction is not seen in any Portuguese Church.

    There is no depiction of St Thomas with Peacocks in any Church now.


    St.Thomas bringing logs from Adams peak to Chennai is a little known legend to Srilankans.


    Marignolli’s account states St.Thomas built many Churches at Chennai. But the exact locations of these churches is not known.


    Acts of Thomas says that he was sold by Jesus himself as a slave to Indian merchant Abban.

    St.Thomas himself owning two slaves unique to Mylapore kegend. These two slaves names are not known. There is no information regarding conversion of these slaves.
    These Tamil slaves perhaps were never converted by St.Thomas as St.Thomas preferred to convert higher classes of people only.


    St.Thomas preferred to convert Kings and Brahmins and Jews. Indo-Parthian king and his family was Baptised by St.Thomas in 46 AD. Similarly Indo-Greek King Misdeus’s family was also had been converted by St.Thomas.

    The Chennai King also was converted but his name is not Known.

    There is no indication he ever talked Tamil or other Dravidian languages. St.Thomas could have preached in Aramaic, Hebrew and Sanskrit.

    St.Thomas might have mastered Sanskrit enabling him to convert Nambuthiris (The ancient Brahmins of Tamilaham were Andhanar, Vedhiar and Parpanar).The ancient Liturgical language of Indian Christians could be most likely Sanskrit.

    However most of the St.Thomas christians (Nestorians) were centred at Seleucia Ctesiphon, capital of Sassanian Persia. With the arrival of Nestorian Christians from Persia after 486 AD St.Thomas Christians of Chennai and Kodungaloor might have accepted Syriac as their Liturgical language.

    Dravidian people of ancient Kerala and Tamilnadu however knew neither Hebrew nor Sanskrit and could not understand the preachings of St.Thomas.

    Though St.Thomas was a fisherman from Galilee he had mastered Architecture and Palace building according to Acts of Thomas. St.Thomas was also called Didymus (Twin of Jesus) possibly his physical resemblance to Jesus Christ.


    The fishermen Apostles from Sea of Galilee were

    1. St. Andrew
    2. St. Peter
    3. St.James and
    4. St. John who were brothers
    5. St.Thomas
    6. St. Bartholomew

    Other apostles were Tax collectors and traders.

    St.Thomas is revered by St. Thomas Christians of Kerala while St.Bartholomew is referred by Konkani christians of Mangalore and Goa both Brahmin converts from Nambuthiri and GSB communities respectively. Coastal people prefer St.Andrew.

  28. Vil says:


    The Marignolli’s account says that St.Thomas was shot with a barbed arrow on his side in the exact place where Jesus was injured.

    The acts of Thomas says that four soldiers stabbed him with spears on the orders of Greek king Misdeus on the hill of Calamina (Kala-Minar, Jaghatu, Ghazni Afghanistan at the Greek kingdom called Alexandria of Opiana).

    The Portuguese version is that St.Thomas was stabbed with a spear at Mylapore in 72 AD.


    The Portuguese era painting at St.Thomas mount depicts Brahmins closely resembling Iyers or Ayyangars conspiring against St.Thomas. It is not clear whether Christian Nambuthiris accompanied St.Thomas to Chennai. The fate of Tamil Brahmin Iyers converted by St.Thomas at Chennai is also not known.

  29. Vil says:


    Villavar and their three subgroups Villavar, Malayar and Vanavar ruled Kerala from time immemorial.


    The Chera king who ruled from Mahodhayapuram alias Makotaiyapuram alias Kodungaloor were known as Magathai Nadazhwar or Makothai Nadazhwar. Chera king was also called as Villavarkon. Panantharakan was also a title of Chera kings. Panantharakan meant owner of Palmyra forest. Kulasekaran title of Chera kings might mean “Collector of Coconut bunch”.

    Chera flags displayed the Bow and arrow insignia of Villavars.


    Christianity was not a known religeon to Sangam age Tamils. Sangam age Tamils practised Dravidian religeon, Jainism and Buddhism.

    Ancient Brahmins of Tamilakam was Parpanar, Anthanar and Vediar who perhaps Tamils. Nambuthiris were not present in ancient Sangam age Tamil Nadu.

    The mother tongue of ancient Keralites was Tamil. Pali language was used as Liturgical language.


    A Greek and Roman colonies existed in ancient Kerala and a Temple for Augustus existed at Musiris.

    Early Babylonians Christians and Persian Christians from Seleucia Ctesiphon might have lived among Ionian Greeks known as Yavana in Kerala.


    Cosmos Indicopleustus who was an Egyptian Nestorian monk who visited Srilanka and India in 522 AD reported that there was a Persian Nestorian Bishop at Srilanka. Nestorianism had been accepted as the official religeon of Church of East in 496 AD.

    Cosmos Indicopleustus reported that there was also Christians at “Male where pepper grows”. This Male could be Malainadu in Kerala or Malenad in Karnataka.

  30. Vil says:


    Some of the Balijas belonging to the Bana dynasty who were originally Kshatriyas transformed themselves as traders in the early middle ages. Balijas and Banas were the Northern cousins of Villavar who ruled Chera, Chola and Pandiyan Kingdoms. Balijas were also known as Banajika, Valanjiar, Ainnoottruvar etc. As each Balija trader was accompanied by five hundred soldiers, they were known as Ainnootruvar. Balija traders controlled the trade in the whole south Indian business and also the sea trade between China to Middle East.

    Balija Trade Guilds included Anjuvannam, Manigramam etc. Balija Trade guilds included included foreign traders called Nanadesikal. Nanadesical included Syrian Nestorian Christians, Arabs, Jews, Turks etc. Kerala Christian plates such as Tharissappalli plates and Iravi Korthan plates were Balija Trade Guild plates issued to Nanadesikal.

    Balija Trade Guilds had the authority to collect customs duty and Tax around Kodungaloor according to Iravikortan plate. Iravikortan plate was also a Balija trade Guild plate.


    Two Tharissappalli Churches were built under the patronage of Balija alias Ainnootruvar, one at Kollam at 849 AD at Kollam during the reign of Ay king of Venad Aiyanadikal Thiruvadikal and another at Periapattinam at Ramnad district.

    A palli either a Choultry for foreign traders or a Christian church was built by Mar Sapir Eso under the auspices of Kollam king. Palli in Tamil has many meanings including resting place a lodge, a Choultry, then a place of worship for jains, a school, Kitchen etc.

    It is interesting to note that out of the 26 foreign signatories 13 were Muslims, 6 were Zorastrians, 4 were Jews and another 3 were Christians. The european scholars feigned that the could not decipher the names of the signatories written in Pahlavi, Kufic and Hebrew. If Tharisappally had been a church it could be the most secular church ever bult.

    The second Tharisappalli existed at Periappattinam near Valantharuvai at the Ramnad District which had been built in an unknown period prior to 1200 AD. A Jewish Temple otherwise known as Ainootruvan palli had been built by Balijas next to Tharissappalli. A medieval Tamil stone inscription on a four sided stone dated 1200 AD to 1250 AD which describes the boundaries of the Jewish temple has been found at Valantharuvai at Ramnad district . Nestorianism might have had official protection under Balija Trade guilds throughout south India and local kingdoms. Arabs might have destroyed the Periapattinam Tharissapalli church.

  31. Vil says:


    Nambuthiris appeared in Kerala after the invasion and occupation of Malabar by Tulu invader Banapperumal(Banu Vikrama Kulasekarapperumal) in in 1120 AD. Arabs who intended to establish a colony in Malabar allied with a Buddhist Tulu prince from Alupa dynasty called Banapperumal. Tulu Bana kings were northern relatives of Villavars and also arch enemies of Villavar kings of Kerala. Both Villavar and Bana kings used Kulasekhara title.

    In the earlier period prior to 1120 AD Tuluva Brahmins called Nambuthiris were not allowed in Kerala as Tulunadu had been a enemy country. Arabs brought Nambuthiris inside Kerala in 1120 AD and after 1314 AD Turks gave Tulu-Nepali Tulu samantha Kshatriya, Nepali Nairs and Nambuthiris sovereignty of Kerala.


    Friar John of Montecorvino who visited Kerala in 1292 AD mentioned that few Nestorian Christians and Jews were present at Kerala but they are of little worth and the inhabitants persecuted them, in his “Letters from Cathay and thither” written to Pope in 1305 AD from China.

    “There are a very few Christians, and Jews, and they are of little weight. The people persecute much the Christians, and all who bear the Christian name”.

    John of Montecorvino also mentioned that anybody with Christian name was persecuted in Kerala. The European missionaries such as John of Montecorvino, Jordanus Catalani and John of Marignolli never mentioned any Christian’s who descended from Nambuthiris. Neither did they mention the existence of large number of St.Thomas Christians in Kerala.


    There is no record that the early European missionaries ever visiting any Nestorian Syrian Church in Kerala between the period 1292 AD to 1347 AD. The Nestorian Syrians might have been very few in number in 1292 A.D, perhaps only few hundred individuals existed in Kerala. Only Syrian Church the European missionaries ever visited was at Madras. Strangely the St.Thomas shrine of Madras had been maintained by a Muslim Fakir who claimed that it was a tomb of Muslim a saint ie Dargha. Latin monk John of Montecorvino in 1292 AD, Bishop Jordanus Catalani in 1329 A.D and John of Marignolli in 1347 A.D did not recount meeting any Nestorian Bishops, Archdeacons or even Nestorian Priests in Kerala. Neither did they see any Nestorian Church in Kerala. Christianity became a major religeon in Kerala only after the visit of European missionaries and establishment of Kollam Roman Catholic diocese in 1329 A.D.


    In the period between 1322 AD to 1329 AD Friar Jordanus Catalani converted three thousand Natives of Kollam to Christianity. This mass conversion to christianity by medival Tamils after the fall of Tamil Villavar Kingdoms such as Chera,Chola and Pandiyan kingdoms after the Turkish invasion of Malik Kafur 1311 Kusro Khan in 1314 AD and Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq in 1323 AD. Kollam Roman Catholic Diocese was established in 1329 AD and Jordanus Catalani was made as Bishop of India by Pope. Mirabilia was the book written by Bishop Jordanus Catalani which does not mention St.Thomas Christians or their churches. John of Marignolli says that St Thomas Christians at Kollam were cultivating Pepper, they were doing iron business and owned steelyards and they were having the title Mudaliar. The records of John of Marignolli suggests that the St.Thomas Christians might have converted to Latin Catholicism in 1347 AD.

    St.Thomas christians had donated Hundred Fanams each month and Thousand Fanam when he left Kerala, to Friar Marignolli who was the representative of Pope. This Latin Catholic population converted by European missionaries merged with the earlier Nestorian population as no Latin Bishop was sent to India between 1347 AD to 1498 AD when Portuguese arrived. When Portuguese arrived in 1498 AD there was no Latin Catholic at Kollam. All the Latin Catholics had joined the Nestorians. Thus first increase in the Nestorian population in the 14th century was the handiwork of European missionaries.

  32. Vil says:


    None of the Tamil records from Chera dynasty which ruled from Kodungalur until 1102 AD or Cherai dynasty which ruled from Kollam until 1333 AD mentioned Christianity, Christians or Jesus. Both Kodungalur Chera and Kollam Cherai dynasty were Tamil Villavar dynasties. Villarvettom kingdom related to Syrian Christians, also might have been a Villavar dynasty who descended from Uthiyan Cheralathan dynasty of Kuttanadu who ruled from Udayanapuram near Vaikom in the ancient times and Udhayamperoor in the later days.


    During Tamil Chera dynasty era Kerala was ruled by Villavar kings supported by armies drawn from Villavar, Malayar and Vanavar. Chera flag displayed Bow and arrow insignia of Villavar. Villavars were also supported by Srilankan Buddhist soldiers called Iyakkar.

    But after the Tulu-Nepali occupation of Kerala around 1333 AD, Kerala was divided into four groups.

    1.Villavar (Villarvettom Nestorian Christians, Cherai Villavars of Kollam and Trivandrum).
    2.Tulu-Nepali clans (Samantha Kshatriyas, Nairs and Namboothiris).
    3. Ezhava-Iyakkar and also Villavar clans who had joined Ezhava such as Panikkar and Sannar.
    4.Arab Muslims including Tamil Marakkayars who owned ships.

  33. Vil says:


    Syrian Christians originated from Persian Nestorian Syrian Christian sailirs who came from Persian capital Seleucia Ctesiphon who married coastal Tamil women of Kerala and were known as Malabar Suriyani Nasrani Mapilla.


    Syrian Nasrani Mappilla used a language called Karzoni or Karshoni. Karshoni language was written with Syriac Garshuni script but the language was Western Tamil ie Malayalam-Tamil. Large number of Tamils from Villarvettom kingdom who joined Nestorianism and Roman Catholicism were also forced to adopt Karshoni Malayalam as colloquial language and Syriac as their liturgical language in the Churches.

  34. Vil says:


    The Tamil Villarvettom kingdom faced opposition from the Nambuthiris and Nairs after the establishment of Cochin kingdom in 1335 AD.

    Villarvettom kings might have descended from Uthiyan branch of Cheran dynasty which ruled from Udayanapuran in Kuttanad. The latter-day capitals of Villarvettom kingdom were Chendamangalam and Udayamperoor. The Villarvettom kingdom ruled the areas between Chendamangalam to Vaikkom. But after Kochi kingdom was established in 1335 AD Thripunitura near Udayamperoor and Vellarapalli were made secondary capitals of Cochin Kingdom. Facing opposition from Tulu-Nepalese invaders the Villarvettom king converted to Christianity around 1339 AD. “Mirabilia” written by Latin Bishop Jordanus Catalani covers the period between 1329 AD to 1338 AD did not mention the presence of any Christian king in Kerala. But Kozhikode Granthavari mentioned the war between Christian Villarvettom kingdom and the combined armies of Samuthiri and Arabs in 1340 AD.

    The conversion of Villavar and Panickars of Villarvettom kingdom might have increased the Nestorian Christian population to 30000. This provoked a violent attack from Arabs and their ally the Samuthiri king of Kozhikode in 1340 AD. Capital of Villarvettom kingdom Chendamangalam was destroyed and then the capital was shifted to Udayamperoor. The Villarvettom king wrote a letter to Pope seeking help around 1350 AD. Pope redirected that letter to Portuguese king. A rumour that a powerful Christian king called Prestor John was ruling over India was circulated among the Europe’s elite. But no help came from Europe until 1450 AD when the Villarvettom kingdom ended. The Villarvattom kingdom was subjugated by Cochin kingdom and it remained as a vassal country of Cochin until the end of its rule end in 1450 AD. The Kozhikode Granthavari mentioned Villarvettom kingdom as a vassal Christian outsider kingdom related by blood to Cochin kings. This indicates that after 1350 AD Tamil Villarvettom princesses were forced to have Sambandam with Nambiadri kings of Cochin which might have created a Syrian Christians’ Nambudiri origin myth.

    Nambiadri kings of Kochi descended from Sridevi, the sister of Tulu invader Banapperumal. Nambudiris were Tuluva Brahmins with Ahichatram roots. Tulu princess Sridevi had Sambandam with a Nambudiri and her descendents formed Nambiadri dynasty who originally ruled from Perumbadappu near Vanneri in the Malappuram district prior to 1335 AD.

    Last Villarvettom princess Kirubavathi had Sambandam with Ramavarma from Cochin family. But when Ramavarma was converted to Christianity he was killed. The last Villarvettom princess Kirubavathy was converted to Hinduism after a brief ceremony. kirubavathy was made concubine of Cochin Nambiadri king around 1450 AD.

    At 1450 AD Villarvettom dynasty was removed from power by Kochi Kings. The territories of Villarvettom kingdom was given to some Panickers from Paliyam who had defected to Nair side. Chendamangalam became their capital. These Panickar chieftains were known as Paliyathu Achan who became chief ministers of Cochin kingdom. But Palakkadu menons were the last to occupy the former Villarvettom territory with the title Paliyathu Achan.

    Between 1350 AD to 1498 AD when Nambuthiris became dominant they might have misused the Christian women and had Sambandam with them.The last princess of Villarvettom kingdom Kirubavathy was forced to become the concubine of Cochin Nambiadri Brahmin king after converting her to Hinduism after a brief ceremony. The children of Kirubavathy in Brahmin attire might have accompanied Villarvettom chieftains to meet Vasco Da Gama.

  35. Vil says:


    Some of the Syrian Christians in Brahmin attire along with the Udayamperoor chieftains met Vasco Da Gama and presented him a wooden sceptre of Villarvettom kingdom and requested him to restore Villarvettom kingdom to them. They also offered their support to Portuguese to conquer all India and professed their fealty to Portuguese king. But realising that the legendary powerful Indian King Prestor John was nothing but a petty subservient chieftain of Cochin king, Vasco Da Gama did not try to help them.

    Nambuthiris might have misused the Nestorian christian women which might have given their descendents Nambuthiri Christian ancestry. This claim of Nambuthiri roots of few Nestorian Christians was popularised by Portuguese to unite the Villarvettom Tamil Nestorian Christians with their own enemies, the Nairs and Nambuthiris. Portuguese era priests claimed that all the Portuguese Mestizo Catholics actually descended from Nambuthiris converted by St.Thomas to Christianity at 52 AD.

    This is purely based St.Jeromes statement “ut Christus apud Brachmanas praedicaret”  meaning St.Thomas went to India to preach Brahmins. St.Jerome was credited with translating bible from Hebrew to Latin in 382 AD.

    St. Jerome’s statement that St.Thomas who was a fisherman by birth and a building architect by profession went to convert Brahmins of Takshashila in Pakistan ruled by King Gondophares and Brahmins of “Alexandria in Opiana” country in Afghanistan ruled by King Misdeus is rather strange. Because these countries were Buddhist countries in the ancient times.

    Portuguese Missionaries came to the conclusion that St.Jerome’s “Brahmins” were Nambuthiris, Pakistan’s Parthian king Gondophares was the King of Kerala and Afghanistan’s Greek king Misdeus was King of Madras.

    The Villarvettom king sent a letter to Pope seeking help from Christian European countries in 1350 AD.

    Pope redirected this letter to Portuguese king. This letter of invitation to European powers ultimately changed the history of India. But as the Portuguese came only after 148 years, the Portuguese arrival did not help Villarvettom king, who had lost his kingdom around 1450 AD. Portuguese converted the scion of Villarvettom dynasty from Nestorian Christianity to Roman Catholicism. But did not help him regain his Villarvettom kingdom. Villarvettom lineage ended in 1701 AD when the last Villarvettom titular king died without heirs.

    The Letter written by Villarvettom king is preserved in the Portuguese archives called “Lisbon Papers”.

    Villarvettom king had converted to Nestorianism which the other Christians considered as a heretic sect of Christianity which denied divinity of Jesus. Pope or Portuguese king might not have considered saving a Nestorian Indian king is of utmost importance.

    The intermixture of Portuguesemen with Villarvettom Nestorian Syrian Tamils created a Portuguese Mestizo Roman Catholic population numbered 200,000 in 1660 AD.


    When Portuguese arrived in 1498 AD they could not find any Latin Catholics from the Roman Catholic diocese of Kollam established by Bishop Jordanus Catalani in 1329 AD. This indicated that the 3000 Latin Catholics of Kollam had either joined the Nestorian Christians or had been annihilated.

  36. Vil says:


    One of the major reasons for the disappearance Villavar people of Chera dynasty was the Portuguese intermixture with Villarvettom Tamils and other Villavar clans to create a Mestizo community.

    Throughout the west coast of India and at Srilanka, Portuguese soldiers intermixed with the local population of diverse origins. At Goa Portuguesemen intermixed with Moghuls and Konkini people. At Mangalore Portuguesemen intermixed with Konganis. At Kerala Portuguesemen intermixed with the Nestorian Christians including Villarvettom Tamils, and also the coastal fisher people.At Srilanka the Portuguese intermixed with fishermen called Karaiyar-Karave and also agricultural Govigama castes.


    As each Portuguese soldier was allowed to export spices to Europe they became extremely rich. With this the custom of keeping local concubines increased. Each Portuguese soldier and merchants had kept upto twenty wives, Concubines and Slave girls. Due to miscegenation between Portuguese men and local women a community called Mestico or Mestizo emerged. These Mestizos were raised as Roman Catholics. Mestizos were behind the sudden emergence of Roman Catholic community in the west coast of India.

    Clans of Mestizos

    Mestizo people had been classified as various subgroups according to the extent of European blood in them.


    Castizos were mostly had European blood but also they had little Indian blood. Castizos were allowed to marry European women.

    2. Mestizo

    Mestizos were half European and half Indian. As European women were extremely rare at India, the European men married the Mestizo women during Portuguese and dutch period. Mestizos were mostly the soldierly class of Portuguese. 4000 Mestizos defended the Cochin fort of Portuguese. Only Mestizos were allowed to enter the Cochin fort. Mestizos led the inland armies of Portuguese. Some Mestizos had been trained in European Architecture, Engineering and Mural paintings who built Churches for Portuguese. Mestizos monitored the cultivation of spices and its export. At the Dutch period Mestizos were given land to cultivate Tobaco at Cherthala area and a factory was founded there. Europeans can marry Mestizo women but not vice versa.

    3.Toepass or Topazi.

    Topazi were Mestizos with more Indian blood and less European blood and they had dark complexion. Topazis worked as brokers, interpreters and communicators. Toepasses who were Roman Catholics had been allowed to build houses within the walls of Cochin fort. Toepasses were considered as local Indian clans by Europeans hence they had lower status than other Mestizos. An European can marry a Toepassi woman but not vice versa ie a Toepassi can’t marry an European woman.


    The towns which had been under Villarvettom kingdom such as Chendamangalam, North Paravur, Vypeen, Kochi, Udhayamperoor, Angamali, Alangad and Vaikkom became Roman Catholic centres.

  37. Vil says:


    Panickars who were martial art trainers who maintained a contingent of soldiers under the Villavar kingdoms. Panickers joined the Portuguese and thereby created a Mestizo society. Now the Panickers are leaders of various Syrian Christian Churches. Vallikada Panickers are with Syro-Malabar and Orthodox churches. Adangapurathu Panickars are with Syro-Malabar church. Kumbanadu Panickers are with Marthoma Church. Mylitta Panickers are with Syro-Malankara church. Dutch influenced Maranadu Panickers are with London Mission Church of Kollam. Some Panickars claim that they have Nambuthiri ancestry. Some claim that Tamil Panicker title was given to them by Marthanda Varma belonging to Tulu Alupa-Kolathiri dynasty. Many Christian Panickers pretend to be related to be Nairs with Tulu-Nepalese roots. None of the Christian Panickars of Kerala understand that they were Villavars who had been the martial nobility of Villavar Kingdoms.


    Portuguese conducted census which estimated the Kerala Nestorian Syrian Christian population in 1502 AD around 30,000.


    Portuguese trained hundreds of priests from the Nestorian families in Latin seminaries established between 1540 AD to 1623 AD with the help of whom Portuguese managed all the churches of Kerala.But Portuguese allowed the use of Eastern Syriac rites by Nestorian priests who had been converted to Roman Catholicism.

  38. Vil says:


    The Roman priests inspected the Syriac literature for the Nestorian heresy which declared that Jesus was not God and Mary was not Mother of God but Mother of Jesus. In the early 1500s Portuguese priests hid the portions of Nestorian Heresy with black ink in the Syriac Liturgy. Thus Portuguese priests indirectly encouraged heretic Nestorian Syriac Christianity and Syriac language. This lead to many fold increase of Syriac rite priests who pretended that they were natives of Kerala. Syriac language which was unintelligible to hapless Tamils of Kerala who had been converted by Portuguese, flourished under Portuguese. The Popes starting from Julius III tried to undermine the authority of Portuguese sent Syriac speaking Chaldean Kurdish Bishops to become Malabar Bishops of Malabar from 1556 onwards. These foreign Kurdish bishops could enforce their Arab rituals, customs such as feasting, fasting and Syriac language in the Malabar church.

    Udayamperoor Sunnahadose at 1599 AD, might have brought an end Nestorian heresy as all the Christians of Kerala were forced to accept Jesus as God. But Udayamperoor inquisition actually encouraged the use of Syriac language. It was proposed to translate Roman Mass into Syriac language and to use it instead of Syriac Qurbana. But the Syriac priests stiffly resisted the move in 1599 AD hence Syriac Qurbana was allowed to use on churches by Menezes but with addition of Roman missals.

    However Portuguese removed the names and teachings of Nestorious, Theodore and Diodore from Eastern Syriac rite. Nestorious, Theodore and Diodore had been the founding fathers of the Nestorian Church of the east.

    The European priests in the laterdays banned the uncorrected Syriac Qurbana in the churches as it was part of Nestorian rites.The Roman Mass translated into Syriac was widely used.

    The Portuguese support to Syriac language in churches led to the study of Syriac language by many priests. Francis Roz the first Latin Bishop of Angamaly had mastered Malayalam as well as Syriac language.

    Portuguese priests literate in Syriac translated Roman Sacramentary into Syriac at the Diocese at Braga in Portugal. This indicates Portuguese wanted to promote Syriac language in Kerala.

    Portuguese had the authority to promote the native Dravidian language of Kerala, Malayalam-Tamil as the liturgical language but Portuguese failed to do so. The Portuguese promotion of Syriac language might have benefitted few priestly families who had foreign ancestry from Chaldea in Iraq.

    The medival Dravidian Tamil people who converted to Roman catholicism during Purtuguese era had to endure both Latin rites and Syriac rites Liturgy which they never understood. The medival Tamils had inextricably merged with the Syriac Nestorians and Portuguese.

    Some Orthodox churches formed after 1665 AD employed a Kattiyakaran who translated Syriac mass into Malayalam for the mass.

  39. Vil says:


    The Goan and Mangalorean Mestizos remained loyal to Portuguese until their eviction in 1961 AD. Paradavar remained loyal to Portuguese

    But the Syrian Roman Catholic Mestizos under the influence of some priestly families with Nestorian roots started antagonising Portuguese after 1550s.

    Archdeacon Marthoma had been writing to many different churches of Levant demanding to send one Bishop to elevate him to Bishophood since 1550 AD. Though one Orthodox Bishop called Ahatallah who had converted to Latin Catholicism came to India in 1552 falsely claiming that he had been made Patriarch of India and China. Portuguese had sent him back in 1553.

    The Nestorian priests spread the rumour that Ahatallah had been appointed by Pope as the Arch Bishop of India but Portuguese had drowned him in the Vembanad Backwaters. This led to the upheaval of Roman Catholics in 1653.

    The Roman Catholic Syriac rite Nasrani Mapillas peacefully protested against the Portuguese at 1653 AD opposite of “Koonan Kurisu” in Mattancherry which was inside the Portuguese fort. Coonan Cross Oath of 1653 AD which challenged Portuguese authority was similar to Sepoy revolt of 1858 AD against British. But it was only a peaceful protest by a tiny group of Syriac Nasrani Mapillas inside Portuguese Fort. Syriac Nasrani Mapilla priests never revolted against Portuguese with arms.

    It was a foolish act of the Roman Catholics to join the revolt, as they were infact Villarvettom Tamils who themselves had Portuguese blood. The Portuguese relied on the 4000 Mestizo soldiers who protected the fort and also required the support of Roman Catholic Tamil Mestizo population who had a populationabout 200000. Only a tiny fraction of Portuguese Catholics might have had Syriac Nestorian blood.

    The betrayal of the Tamil Mestizo population led to the Portuguese ouster in 1663 AD. In the laterdays the Tamil Mestizos were forced to join Syriac churches and identify themselves as Syrians. The Portuguese Roman Catholics were brought completely under the control of the former Nestorian priests.

    The enormous landed properties accumulated by the churches in the Pirtuguese era attracted the priests with Nestorian background. These former Nestorian priests from Palayoor revolted against Portuguese Archbishop Garcia of Kodungaloor. Portuguese created a class of Nestorian-Catholic aristocracy who controlled the landed properties of the church. These Nestorian-Catholic priests became independent from Portuguese and also from Pope.

    The Mestizos by supporting the Dutch protestant colonial rulers brought an end to the progress of Christianity in Kerala and eviction of Portuguese IN 1663 AD.

    Between 1660 to 1663 AD Portuguese were defeated and removed from Kochi by Dutch. But the Padroado Portuguese Jesuit missionaries still remained at Kodungaloor.

    One priest called Palliveetil Chandy from Pakalomattom family was elevated as Bishop of Kodungaloor arch diocese formed the Syro-Malabar Catholic church at Kodungaloor under Chaldean Catholic church in 1663 AD.

    This Chaldean Catholic faction called “Pazhankur” or Old Faction had 84 churches and in its fold with Palliveetil Chandy who formed the Syro-Malabar Church as Bishop. Syro Malabar Church was under Chaldean Catholic church and Eastern Catholic churches. Chaldean Catholic churches never existed in Kerala prior to 1663 AD.

    The Villarvettom Mestizo Tamils had to join this unknown Chaldean Catholic church of Mosul in Iraq in 1663 AD. The Kerala’s Mestizo Roman Catholics were mostly medival Tamils mixed with Portuguese. They had no reason to join either Chaldean Catholics or Oriental Orthodox Christianity. After Portuguese left they were led by priests from a family of Nestorian Archdeacons they were forced to join the Syriac churches.

    But after the reign of Palliveetil chandy between 1663 to 1687 the Kodungaloor diocese became a Latin diocese once again, controlled by Padroado priests under Portuguese crown. Kodungaloor Bishops between 1663 to 1838 were European Latin Bishops.

  40. Vil says:


    Kodungalur Latin Diocese was established in 1601 AD with Francis Roz as first Bishop. Portuguese facing opposition from Nestorian priests Portuguese appointed Parambil Chandy who was a Chaldean Catholic as Bishop of Latin Diocese of Kodungaloor 1663 AD.

    After this Syriac rite churches claimed to be of Syro Malabar church. But Parambil Chandy himself was a Chaldean catholic who used Latin Liturgy.

    After Parambil Chandy Portuguese Jesuit Bishops of Kodungaloor continued to to reign over Thrissur, and Angamaly areas.

    At Palayoor a factory to process spices existed in the Portuguese and Dutch periods. Palayoor Church had been built by Portuguese.


    The other faction of Portuguese Mestizo catholic Christians was led by Archdeacon Marthoma. In 1665 AD an Orthodox Bishop of Jerusalem ocalled Mar Abdal Jaleel came to India and elevated archdeacon Marthoma as Bishop under a new church Orthodox or Jacobite Church established by Jacob Bardeus in 543 AD. Though the founder Bishop Jacob wore tattered robe Bardeus(tattered cloth stitched) was added to him. But the laterday Orthodox priests were known for their opulent robes.

    The Roman Catholics of the 40 churches still thought that they were Catholics. Gradually only realised that they have gone to a completely different Syrian church.


    During the Portuguese and Dutch era coastal Mestizo communities were encouraged to cultivate pepper at the Westernghats.

    This resulted the migration of Roman Catholics from Kodungaloor and Kochi to Angamali, Kuruvilangad and Kottayam. Similar migration of Roman Catholics of Kollam to Pathanamthitta occurred.


    The Portuguese Roman Catholics underwent a schism of their church in 1663 AD and thereby creating Latin Catholics, Syro-Malabar with roots from Chaldean Catholics and Malankara Orthodox sects. Because of Portuguese efforts all sects rejected Nestorian Syriac Christianity and its heresy in the laterdays. A Nestorian  Bishop called Mar Gabriel arrived in Malabar in 1708 AD. Neither Malankara church nor Catholics accepted him. Finally he came to Kottayam Cheria palli under Malankara Orthodox church. He died and was buried there. His burial place was later demolished under the orders of Orhodox Bishop Marthoma in 1730 AD and those stones were used as stepping stones to the parish building . Desecration of the grave of the last Nestorian priest Mar Gabriel also marked the end of Nestorianism in India.


    In 1775 AD a Syriac priest of Malayatoor who used Raza Qurbana which was considered heretical by the Carmelite priests of Varapuzha was dragged out of procession, handcuffed, taken to Varapuzha and was chained to a cot. This incidence clearly indicates that only Syriac translation of Roman mass was used in the churches in 1775 AD and not Nestorian Raza Qurbana.

  41. Vil says:


    Thangassery at Kollam had a Dutch mint in the 18th century. Many Suriyani Mapillas who had adopted Roman Catholicism during Portuguese era joined Dutch protestent church at Thangassery. Maranadu Panickers who were Tamils had also joined the Dutch church. A Dutch Mestizo community with mixed ethnicities evolved. Dutch Mestizos were known as Lantha Mapillais.


    British hindered the local European Catholic Bishops. Syrian Catholic priest Kariattil Mar Ouseph from Alangad sailed to Portugal and was appointed as Bishop of Kodungaloor’s Latin diocese in 1785 AD at Lisbon.But Kariattil Mar Ouseph was also a Latin priest who had graduated from Carmelite Propaganda college of Rome. Kariattil Mar Ouseph had written a book called “Noticias do Reino do Malabar” in Portuguese language in 1780. After this the Latin Jesuits Diocese of Kodungaloor with Jurisdiction at Angamaly continued to have European Latin Catholic Bishops until 1838 AD. Kodungaloor Archdiocese merged with Varapuzha Latin Diocese in 1838 AD

    Some rebellious Syriac rite priests from Cherthala established a rival monastery called Carmelites of Mary Immaculate at Mannanam in 1831 AD but under Latin Carmelites of Varapuzha.

    The Syro Malabar churches started identifying themselves as separate from Latin churches after 1838 AD.

  42. Vil says:


    By the end of 18th century only few Syriac rite churches existed at Angamaly and Alangad. When British blocked the entry of Portuguese priests in 1795 Kariyattil Mar Ouseph a Syrian priest was anointed as indigenous Bishop of Kodungaloor in 1785 AD. Karyattil Mar Ouseph was also a Latin priest who got a Doctororate of Theology from Propaganda college at Rome.

    After 1838 AD Kodungaloor Latin Arch diocese was downgraded and merged with Varapuzha. Many Latin Catholics of Varapuzha joined the Syro-Malabar church. Once again Syriac Nestorian rites were revived. Infact Nestorianism and Roman Catholicism were opposing ideologies. The Syrian Catholic priests use Nestorian Liturgy to prevent the Pope gaining complete control of their churches. Most of the Eastern Catholic churches use their own liturgy instead of Latin Liturgy.

    After 1887 AD the Kodungaloor Latin diocese was downgraded and merged with Varapuzha diocese. Varapuzha church itself was fragmented when Syriac rite Christians joined Angamaly. Many Latin Churches of Varapuzha joined the Cochin Arch diocese.

    The Syriac rite Christians from Latin Catholic Carmelite diocese of Varapuzha merged with Jesuit Angamaly diocese to create Angamaly-Varapuzha Archdiocese also known as Ernakulam-Angamaly Archdiocese which is under Syro-Malabar sect now.


    Kollam, Varapuzha and Kodungaloor were originally Latin dioceses but many from these churches defected to Syro-Malabar sect with Nestorian liturgy in the 19th century.

  43. Vil says:


    There had been an unholy alliance between European colonial rulers, Portuguese Mestizos and Tulu-Nepali kingdoms. The oppressive matrilineal Tulu-Nepali kingdoms of Nairs, Nambuthiris and Samantha Kshatriyas could not be overthrown by indigenous Dravidian Villavar clans of Kerala as the Europeans and Portuguese Mestizo Christians were supporting Tulu-Nepali kingdoms. This led to suppression of Dravidian Villavars in Kerala.


    Portuguese era Mestizo Christians were the founders of the modern Christianity in Kerala. The Roman Catholic churches and their offshoot Malankara Orthodox-Jacobite churches in Kerala were founded by Portiguese Mestizo Christians. Portuguese Jesuit Padrados nurtured Roman Catholicism in Kerala until 1838 AD.

    But the Syrian Christians distanced themselves from Portuguese and pretend that they were Nambuthiris converted by St.Thomas in 52 AD. Syrian Christians admit that they might be Jews and Syrians converted by St.Thomas at Babylon. A faction of Syrian Christians claim they are from Edessa and Antioch and had been converted by St James at the ancient Byzantine Greek kingdom.

    But Syrian Christians never admit that they had been Tamils from Villarvettom kingdom or Portuguese Mestizos.


    Syrian Christians are Villarvettom Tamils and Tamils of Kollam who intermixed with few Nestorian syrian Christians and Portuguese and thereby formed a Portuguese Mestizo community. The Villarvettom Tamils lost their culture, Religeon and language because of their intermixture with foreigners.
    When Medieval Tamils disappeared a large Roman Catholic Portuguese Mestizo community appeared in Kerala in the sixteenth century.


    John of Montecorvino’s letter to Pope on the plight of Keralas Christians

  44. Vil says:


    Until 1830 AD Kerala’s Syrian Christians were using a Dravidian tongue called Malayalam-Tamil or Malayanma. But Nairs and Nambuthiris were using Nepali mixed Malayalam written with Tulu script. British decided to promote Nepali Malayalam instead of the Malayalam-Tamil used by Syrian Christians. British missionary went to Mangalore Basil mission to make printing types for Nepali Malayalam.


    As the Syrian Christians and Latin Christians did not know Nepali Malayalam British recruited two Hindus called Chathu Menon from Ottappalam and Vaidyanatha Aiyar who with the help of a Jew called Iver Faty wrote the first Nepali Malayalam Bible.

    After 1830 AD Syrian Christians adopted Nepali Malayalam written with Tulu script as their mother tongue. Their original Dravidan tongue Malayalam-Tamil became extinct. They were proud that they were talking Sanskrit words. But infact it was “Nepali Malayalam”

  45. Vil says:


    പാലയൂർ ചെമ്പ് തകിട്
    കൊല്ലം 781
    1606 എഡി
    ലിപി: വട്ടെഴുത്ത്
    ഭാഷ: മലയാളം-തമിഴ്

    മലയാളം (ലിപ്യന്തരണം)

    1. കൊല്ലം 781 – മത കുമ്പ ഞായറ്റിൽ എഴുതിയ വെം
    2. പാട്ടം നെറ് പലിശ ഓലകരണമാവത പാലൂറ്പള്ളിലെ വികാരിയും പുരൊ
    3. ത്തിക്കാരരും കൂട കൈയ്യാൽ ആയിരത്ത അൻമ്പത്ത അഞ്ച്
    4. പുതു പണം കൊണ്ടാൻ കൂത്തംചെരിഇരവിനാരാണെൻ
    5. കൊണ്ടാൻ കൊണ്ടന പരിശാവത ഇക്കൊണ്ട പുതു(1) പണം 105
    6. 5 നും കാരിയം തന്റ്റെ ഇരിങ്ങപ്പുരംദെശത്ത ഇളങ്
    7. കുളത്ത വടിക്കെമുറി പറമ്പും അതിന അടുത്തകണ്ടങ്ങ
    8. ൾ നാല്പ്പതിനാഴി വിത്തിനു കണ്ടവും കൂട നില പാ
    9. ട്ടമുൾപ്പട ആയിരത്ത അന്മ്പത്ത അഞ്ച്പണത്തിന

    Second Side.

    10. നെറ്പലിശ കിഴിടുമാറ എഴുതിക്കൊടുത്താൻഇരവി നാരാണെൻ
    11. ഇമ്മാർക്കമെ ഇച്ചൊന്ന ഇളങ്കുളത്തെ വടക്കെമുറിപ്പറമ്പും
    12. അതിടുത്ത കണ്ടം നാനാഴി വിത്തിന്നു കണ്ടവുംകൂടി ആ
    13. യരത്ത 1055 ത്തിന്ന നെറ്പലിശകിഴിയുമാറ എഴു
    14. തിച്ചു കൊണ്ടാറ് പാലൂറ് പള്ളിയിൽ വികാരി പരൂക്കുളങ്ങരെ
    15. ഇട്ടി അച്ചെനാരൂം പുരൊത്തിക്കാരരും കൂടിഇപ്പടിക്ക
    16. ഇതട്ടുയും (ഇത അറിയും) താഴ്ക്കി കൊതനല്ലൂർ നമ്പുതിരി മാ
    17. ടക്കാവിൽ ചാത്തപ്പമെനോൻകൈയഴുത്ത.


    The Palayur plate of 1606 AD written by a Nair called Chathappa menon and in which a Nambuthiri had been a witness, had been written in Malayalam-Tamil language with Vattezhuthu script which were used in official documents then.

    The Nepali Malayalam written in Tulu script remained the private spoken language of Tulu-Nepali clans such as Nairs, Nambuthiris and Samantha Kshatriyas but unknown to rest of the Keralites.


  46. Vil says:

    பாலையூர் தாமிர தகடு.
    கொல்லம் 781
    கிபி 1606
    எழுத்து முறை : வட்டெழுத்து

    First Side.

    1. கொல்லம் ௭௱௮௰௧(781) -மத கும்ப ஞாயற்றில் எழுதிய வெம்
    2. பாட்டம் நெற் பலிச ஓலகரணமாவத பாலூற்பள்ளிலெ விகாரியும்புரொ
    3. த்திக்காரரும் கூட கைய்யால் ஆயிரத்த அன்ம் பத்த அஞ்
    4. சு புது பணம் கொண்டான் கூத்தம்செரி இரெவிநாராணென்
    5. கொண்டான் கொண்டன பரிசாவத இக்கொண்ட புது௧(1) பணம் ௲௫௰
    6. ௫ (1055) னும் காரியம் தன்ற்றெ இரிங்ஙப்புரம் தெசத்த இளங்
    7. குளத்த வடிக்கெமுறி பறம்பும் அதின அடுத்த கண்டங் ங
    8. ள் நால்ப்பதினாழி வித்தினு கண்டவும் கூட நில பா
    9. ட்டமுள்ப்பட ஆயிரத்த அன்ம்பத்த அஞ்சு பணத்தின

    Second Side.

    10. நெற்பலிச கிழிடுமாற எழுதிக் கொடுத்தான் இரெவி நாராணென்.
    11. இம்மார்க்கமெ இச்சொன்ன இளங்குளத்தெ வடக்கெமுறிப் பறம்
    12. பும் அதிடுத்த கண்டம் நானாழி வித்தின்னு கண்டவும் கூடி ஆ
    13. யரத்த ௲௫௰௫(1055) த்தின்ன நெற்பலிச கிழியுமாற எழு
    14. திச்சு கொண்டாற் பாலூற் பள்ளியில் விகாரி பரூக்குளங்ஙரெ
    15. இட்டி அச்செனாரும் புரொத்திக்காரரும் கூடி இப்படிக்க
    16. இதட்டுயும்(இத அறியும்) தாழ்க்கி கொதநல்லூர் நம்புதிரி மா
    17. டக்காவில் சாத்தப்பமெனோன் கையழுத்த

    Kollam 781
    1606 AD
    Language : MALAYALAM-TAMIL

    Plate belonging to Syro-Roman Church of Palaiyur.

    Deed written in 1606 AD.A certain Iravi Narayanan resident of Kuttancherry had received a loan of 1055 Panam from the Vicar of Palayur Church and the functionaries of the Church.

    The document recordes the transfer of a landed property situated in Ilangulum in Irinnappuram desam called Vadakemuri land and the adjoining land with forty Nazhi seed sowing capacity owned by Ravi Narayanan, to Palur Church Vicar Paru Kulankara Itty Achanar as parallel to 1055 Panam and interest.

    In this way Palur Church Vikari Paru Kulankara Itty Achanar and Functionaries made this land deed written.

    Nambuthiri of Kothanallur was a witness. Document was written by Madakkavu Sattappa Menon.

    This copper plate does not have any Nepali words.

  47. Vil says:


    പാലയൂർ ചെപ്പേട്,
    കൊല്ലം 918.
    1743 AD
    ഭാഷ: മലയാളം-തമിഴ്
    ലിപി: വട്ടെഴുത്ത്

    മലയാളം ലിപ്യന്തരണം

    1. കൊല്ലം ௯௱௰அ(918)-മത മീനഞായറ്റിൽ എഴുതിയ അട്ടിപ്പെറ്റൊലക് കരുണമവതു പാലയൂർ തെചത്ത അച്ചഴിത്ത
    2. കുമ്മനിയ്പ്പറമ്പിന്ന തെക്കെപ്പുറം ഇമ്പൊണൻ കല്ലട്ട അതിറ്ക്കതെക്കൊട്ടും പള്ളിപറമ്പിന്ന വടക്
    3. കെ അതിറ്ക്ക വടക്കൊട്ടും പടിഞ്ഞാറ എടവഴിക്ക കിഴക്കൊട്ടും കിഴക്കെ അറ്ക്ക പടിഞ്ഞാട്ടും
    4. ഇ നാലതിറ്ക്ക അകത്തകപ്പെട്ടത എപ്പിയെറ്പെട്ടതും അന്നു നാല റകണ്ടു യെടം അറ്ത്തവും
    5. വാങ്ങി അട്ടിപ്പെറ പിറമുതെലൊതകമയി എഴുതി കൊടുത്താൻ അച്ചഴിത്ത രാമൻ പങ്ങനും
    6. തമ്പിമരും അമ്മാറ്ക്ക ഇച്ചൊന്ന പലൈയൂറ് തെചത്ത അച്ചാഴിയത്ത കുമ്മനിപ്പ
    7. ന്ന തെക്കെപ്പുറം കല്ലിട്ട തിറ്ക്ക തെക്കൊട്ടും പള്ളിപറമ്പിന്ന വടക്കേ അതിറ്ക്ക
    8. വടക്കൊട്ടും പടിഞ്ഞാറ എടവഴിക്ക കിഴക്കൊട്ടും കിഴക്കെ അറ്ക്ക പടിഞ്ഞാട്ടും ഇന്
    9. നാലതിറ്ക്കകത്തകപ്പെട്ടത എപ്പിറ്പെട്ടതും അന്നു നാലറകണ്ടു യെടം അറ്ത്തവും കൊടുത്ത
    10. അട്ടിപ്പെറ പിറമുതലൊതകമായി എഴുതിച്ചു കൊണ്ടൻ പലൈയൂർ പള്ളി വെകരിയും പൊറത്തിക്കാരും ഇമ്മാറ്ക്കമെ
    11. ഇച്ചൊന്ന പറമ്പ അന്നു നാലറകണ്ട യെടം അറ്ത്തവും വാങ്ങി പിറ മുതെലൊതകമായി എഴുതി കൊടുത്താൻ രാമൻ പങ്ങനും
    12. തമ്പിമരും അമ്മറ്ക്കമെ ഇച്ചൊന്ന പറമ്പ അന്നു യെടം അറ്ത്തവും കൊടുത്ത പിറമുതെലൊപകമായി എഴുതിച്ചു
    13. കൊണ്ടൻ പാലയൂർ പള്ളി വെകാരിയും പൊറവറ്ത്തിക്കാരും ഇമ്മറ്ക്കമെ അറിയും പലതക്കി തലപ്പെള്ളി
    14. യരു വെറ്കാവെക്കരൂ കൂടവ്വും ചവുലക്കട്ടിൽ നട്ടരു മമ്മമ്പിൽ മുത്തവ്വെരും കൂത്താമ്പെ
    15. ള്ളി കമ്മളും അറികെ കൊങ്ങാട്ടിൽ കേരളൻ കണ്ടർ കയ്യെഴുത്ത


    Palaiyur plate was a land deed mentioning purchase of land by Vicar of Palayur church and Functionaries at 1743 AD.

    The language of Palaiyur plate was in Western Tamil ie Malayalam-Tamil and script was Vattezhuthu. The Palaiyur people at 1743 did not use the Ezhuthachan style Sanskritised Grantha Malayalam written with Tulu-Tigalari script.

    The gender, number and position variations in verbs were omitted in Grantha Malayalam. Grantha Malayalam appeared in a style as if a North Indian who did not know Tamil attempted to talk in a crude form of Tamil.

  48. Vil says:

    1. கொல்லம் ௯௱௰அ(918)-மத மீனஞாயற்றில் எழுதிய அட்டிப்பெற்றொலக் கருணமவது பாலயூர் தெசத்த அச்சழித்த
    2. கும்மனிய்ப்பறம்பின்ன தெக்கெப்புறம் இம்பொணன் கல்லட்ட அதிற்க்கதெக்கொட்டும் பள்ளிபறம்பின்ன வடக்
    3. கெ அதிற்க்க வடக்கொட்டும் படிஞ்ஞாற எடவழிக்க கிழக்கொ ட்டும் கிழக்கெ அற்க்க படிஞ்ஞாட்டும்
    4. இ நாலதிற்க்க அகத்தகப்பெட்டத எப்பியெற்பெட்டதும் அந்நு நால றகண்டு யெடம் அற்த்தவும்
    5. வாங்ஙி அட்டிப்பெற பிறமுதெலொதகமயி எழுதி கொடுத்தான் அச்சழி த்த ராமன் பங்ஙனும்
    6. தம்பிமரும் அம்மாற்க்க இச்சொன்ன பலையூற் தெசத்த அச்சா ழியத்த கும்மனிப்ப
    7. ன்ன தெக்கெப்புறம் கல்லிட்ட திற்க்க தெக்கொட்டும் பள்ளிபறம்பி ன்ன வடக்கே அதிற்க்க
    8. வடக்கொட்டும் படிஞ்ஞாற எடவழிக்க கிழக்கொட்டும் கிழ க்கெ அற்க்க படிஞ்ஞாட்டும் இந்
    9. நாலதிற்க்ககத்தகப்பெட்டத எப்பிற்பெட்டதும் அந்நு நாலறகண்டு யெ டம் அற்த்தவும் கொடுத்த
    10. அட்டிப்பெற பிறமுதலொதகமாயி எழுதிச்சு கொண்டன் பலையூர் ப ள்ளி வெகரியும் பொறத்திக்காரும் இம்மாற்க்கமெ
    11. இச்சொன்ன பறம்ப அந்நு நாலறகண்ட யெடம் அற்த்தவும் வாங்ஙி பிற முதெலொதகமாயி எழுதி கொடுத்தான் ராமன் பங்ஙனும்
    12. தம்பிமரும் அம்மற்க்கமெ இச்சொன்ன பறம்ப அந்நு யெடம் அற்த்தவும் கொடுத்த பிறமுதெலொதகமாயி எழுதிச்சு
    13 கொண்டன் பாலயூர் பள்ளி வெகாரியும் பொறவற்த்திக்காரும் இம்ம ற்க்கமெ அறியும் பலதக்கி தலப்பெள்ளி
    14. யரு வெற்காவெக்கரூ கூடவ்வும் சவுலக்கட்டில் நட்டரு மம்மம்பில் முத்தவ்வெரும் கூத்தாம்பெ
    15. ள்ளி கம்மளும் அறிகெ கொங்ஙாட்டில் கேரளன் கண்டர் கய்யெழுத்த

  49. Vil says:

    Orthodox Syrian Christian Church (With Knanya past)

    Church Kollam 725 (1550 AD)

    Cross Kollam 754 (1579 AD)

    Reign of King Vira Kerala Adityavarman


    Period: 1592 AD

    1. கொல்லம் ௭௱௬௰௭ 767 மத

    2. தனுமாதம் ௧௰ ௳ மாளி

    3. க்கல் யிச்ச மாத்துயென்

    4. மாத்து நல்லவழி செஇது

    On the 19th day of the Month of Dhanus in Kollam 767, Mattuyen Mattu died.

    Period: 1633 AD

    1. கொல்லம் ௮௱௮ (808) மா

    2. ண்டு சிங்ஙமாதம்

    3. ௪௳(3 ம் நாள்) …….ன் சாண்டி

    4. நல்லவழி பொயி

    On the fourth day of the month of Simha of the Kollam year 808 Chandi died.

  50. W says:

    Period: 1716 AD

    1. ௮௱௯௰௧(891) மாண்டு

    2. தனுவ் மாதம்

    3. ௨௰௪௳(24 ம் நாள்) இள

    4. ச்சார் நல்ல

    5. வழிக்க பொயி

    On the 24th day of the month of Dhanus in the Kollam year 891 Elachar died.

    Period: 1674 AD

    1. கொல்லம் ௮௱௪௰

    2. ௯(849) மாண்டு சிங்ங

    3. மாதம் ………….அ

    4. ச்சா மாபிள ந

    5. ல்ல வழிக்க6. பொயி

    On the …………day of the month of the Simha in the Kollam year 849 Achcha mappila died.

    Period: 1674 AD

    1. ௮௱௪௰௯(849) ம

    2. த மகரமா

    3. தம் ௬௳(6 ம் நாள்)

    4. அவுதெப்

    5. ப நல்ல

    6. வழி பொயி

    On the 6th day of the month of Makara in the year 849 Avuseppu died.

    Period: 1655 AD

    1. கொல்லம் ௮௱௩௰(830)

    2. மாண்ட தனு ௴

    3. ௫௳(5 ம் நாள்) இடெகாடு

    4. மாத்து நல்ல

    5. வழி எட கூடி

    On the 5th day of the month of Dhanus in the Kollam year 830 Edakkadu Mattu died.

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